5 effects of global warming

Global Warming – 5 deadliest effects(back to back)!

Green house gases stay can stay in the atmosphere for an amount of years ranging from decades to hundreds and thousands of years. No matter what we do, global warming is going to have some effect on Earth. Here are the 5 deadliest effects of global warming.

5. Spread of disease
As northern countries warm, disease carrying insects migrate north, bringing plague and disease with them. Indeed some scientists believe that in some countries thanks to global warming, malaria has not been fully eradicated.

4. Warmer waters and more hurricanes

As the temperature of oceans rises, so will the probability of more frequent and stronger hurricanes. We saw in this in 2004 and 2005.

3. Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves

Although some areas of Earth will become wetter due to global warming, other areas will suffer serious droughts and heat waves. Africa will receive the worst of it, with more severe droughts also expected in Europe. Water is already a dangerously rare commodity in Africa, and according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global warming will exacerbate the conditions and could lead to conflicts and war.

2. Economic consequences

Most of the effects of anthropogenic global warming won’t be good. And these effects spell one thing for the countries of the world: economic consequences. Hurricanes cause do billions of dollars in damage, diseases cost money to treat and control and conflicts exacerbate all of these.

1. Polar ice caps melting

The ice caps’ melting is a four-pronged danger.

First, it will raise sea levels. There are 5,773,000 cubic miles of water in ice caps, glaciers, and permanent snow. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, if all glaciers melted today the seas would rise about 230 feet. Luckily, that’s not going to happen all in one go! But sea levels will rise.

Second, melting ice caps will throw the global ecosystem out of balance. The ice caps are fresh water, and when they melt they will desalinate the ocean, or in plain English – make it less salty. The desalinization of the gulf current will “screw up” ocean currents, which regulate temperatures. The stream shutdown or irregularity would cool the area around north-east America and Western Europe. Luckily, that will slow some of the other effects of global warming in that area!

Third, temperature rises and changing landscapes in the artic circle will endanger several species of animals. Only the most adaptable will survive.

Fourthglobal warming could snowball with the ice caps gone. Ice caps are white, and reflect sunlight, much of which is relected back into space, further cooling Earth. If the ice caps melt, the only reflector is the ocean. Darker colors absorb sunlight, further warming the Earth.

KBI - GLOBAL WARMING

KBI - GLOBAL WARMING

Advertisements

Leave a comment »

GLOBAL WARMING…

Environment The term environment means which surrounding around us and is considered as composite term  for the condition in which organism live.

Environment is the sum total of all social, economical, biological, physical ad chemical factor which constitute the surrounding of the man who is both the creator and moulder of the environment.

As we look around at the area in which we live, we see that our surroundings were originally a natural landscape such as a

  • Forest, a river, a mountain, a desert, or a combination of these elements…
KBI - GLOBAL WARMING

KILO BYTE INFORMATION - GLOBAL WARMING- POSTER-001


The industrial development and intensive agriculture that provides the goods for our increasingly consumer oriented society uses up large amounts of natural resources such as water, minerals, petroleum products, wood, etc.

 

Nonrenewable resources, such as minerals and oil are those which will be exhausted in the future if we continue to extract these without a thought for subsequent generations.

Renewable resources, such as timber and water, are those which can be used but can be regenerated by natural processes such as re-growth or rainfall.

 

kilobyte information - chart 001

kilobyte information chart - 001

 

 

Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)

Mumbai: the BNHS began as a small society of six members in 1883.

The influence on wildlife policy building, research, popular publications and peoples action have been unique features of the multifaceted society.

Undoubtedly its major contribution has been in the field of wildlife research.

It is India’s oldest conservation research based organization.

 

 

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-I), New Delhi:

The WWF-I was initiated in 1969 in Mumbai after which the headquarters were shifted to Delhi with several branch offices all over India.

The early years focused attention on wildlife education and awareness.

It runs several programs including the Nature Clubs of India program for school children and works as a think tank and lobby force for environment and development issues.

 

Center for Science and Environment (CSE),New Delhi:

Activities of this Center include organizing campaigns, holding workshops and conferences, and producing environment related publications.

It published a major document on the ‘State of India’s Environment’, the first of its kind to be produced as a Citizen’s Report on the Environment.

The CSE also publishes a popular magazine, ‘Down to Earth’, which is a Science and Environment fortnightly.

It is involved in the publication of material in the form of books, posters, video films and also conducts workshops and seminars on biodiversity related issues.

 

Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun:

This Institution was established in 1982, as a major training establishment for Forest Officials and Research in Wildlife Management. Its most significant publication has been ‘Planning A Wildlife Protected Area Network for India’ (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988). The organization has over the years added an enormous amount of information on India’s biological wealth

Botanical Survey of India (BSI):

The Botanical Survey of India (BSI) was established in 1890 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. However it closed down for several years after 1939 and was reopened in 1954.

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI):

The ZSI was established in1916. Its mandate was to do a systematic survey of fauna in India.

It has over the years collected ‘type specimens’ on the bases of which our animal life has been studied over the years.

Its origins were collections based at the Indian Museum at Calcutta, which was established in 1875.

 

kilo byte information- spoof- 001

kilo byte information - spoof -001

Albert Einsteins

statement

“Science without philosophy is just mechanics”.

______________________________________________________________

 

Environmental Law Supreme Court of India

The Supreme Court of India has become one of the most progressive courts in the world when it comes to environmental protection.

Closing down companies that continue to pollute the environment as well as making it mandatory for TV and radio stations to run environmental programme.

MC Metta is at the forefront of the development of public interest environmental law globally.

 

kilo byte information - image -001

image - 001 - kilo byte information- the industries are the main source of pollution in the world...

 

____________________________________________________________

 

___—___ WHY UPES NEEDS TO FOCUS ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND ISSUES LIKE GLOBAL WARMING? ? ?

 

 

 

PPT. UPES.ENVIRONMENTAL.STUDIES.001.PPTX.KILO.BYTE.INFORMATION.

environmental_studies

 

 

Leave a comment »

tree conservation

TREE CONSERVATION

Benefits of Protecting Trees :
As important as trees are, their survival is often threatened by development. Millions of trees are needlessly destroyed in this way each year, because many communities do not have strong tree preservation ordinances.

For instance, developers commonly clear-cut building sites to make construction faster and easier. Tree conservation can have positive environmental, economic and health benefits for all communities.

Top 10 Reasons Why We Need Trees
1. Trees help purify the air we breathe by absorbing pollutants.
[ carbon trading, carbon credit ]
2. Trees increase property values and improve the tax base in communities.
3. Trees improve neighborhood appeal, attracting business, shoppers, and homeowners.
4. Trees cool our cities and towns by reducing heat generated by buildings and paved surfaces.
5. Tree shade, properly placed, can save an average household up to $250 annually in energy costs.
6. Trees reduce the amount of pollutants in sewer systems, saving communities millions of dollars in water treatment costs.
7. Trees soften harsh building lines and large expanses of pavement, making urban environments much more pleasant.
8. Trees provide habitat for birds and other wildlife, maintaining a balance with nature even in urban areas.
9. Trees reduce the amount of water-borne pollutants that reach streams and rivers.
10. Trees reduce levels of domestic violence and foster safer, more sociable neighborhood environments.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

.

Leave a comment »

global warming

Global warming is the continuing rise in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Global warming is caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting from human activities such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.This finding is recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized countries and is not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing.

The instrumental temperature record shows that the average global surface temperature increased by 0.74 °C (1.33 °F) during the 20th century. Climate model projections are summarized in the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC). They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.5 to 1.9 °C (2.7 to 3.4 °F) for their lowest emissions scenario and 3.4 to 6.1 °C (6.1 to 11 °F) for their highest. The ranges of these estimates arise from the use of models with differingsensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations.

An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and a probable expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers,permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrence ofextreme weather events including heatwavesdroughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional changes is uncertain. In a 4 °C world, the limits for human adaptation are likely to be exceeded in many parts of the world, while the limits for adaptation for natural systems would largely be exceeded throughout the world. Hence, the ecosystem services upon which human livelihoods depend would not be preserved.

-…caption- – – the green house effect…-

Proposed responses to global warming include mitigation to reduce emissions, adaptation to the effects of global warming, and geoengineering to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or reflect incoming solar radiation back to space. The main international mitigation effort is theKyoto Protocol, which seeks to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration to prevent a “dangerous anthropogenic interference”. As of May 2010, 192 states had ratified the protocol. The only members of the UNFCCC that were asked to sign the treaty but have not yet ratified it are the USA and Afghanistan.

per capita green house emission 2005.

total green house emission, 2005.

Public opinion

In 2007–2008 Gallup Polls surveyed 127 countries. Over a third of the world’s population was unaware of global warming, with people in developing countries less aware than those in developed, and those in Africa the least aware. Of those aware, Latin America leads in belief that temperature changes are a result of human activities while Africa, parts of Asia and the Middle East, and a few countries from the Former Soviet Union lead in the opposite belief. In the Western world, opinions over the concept and the appropriate responses are divided. Nick Pidgeon of Cardiff University said that “results show the different stages of engagement about global warming on each side of the Atlantic”, adding, “The debate in Europe is about what action needs to be taken, while many in the U.S. still debate whether climate change is happening.” A 2010 poll by the Office of National Statistics found that 75% of UK respondents were at least “fairly convinced” that the world’s climate is changing, compared to 87% in a similar survey in 2006. A January 2011 ICM poll in the UK found 83% of respondents viewed climate change as a current or imminent threat, while 14% said it was no threat. Opinion was unchanged from an August 2009 poll asking the same question, though there had been a slight polarisation of opposing views.

A survey in October, 2009 by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press showed decreasing public perception in the United States that global warming was a serious problem. All political persuasions showed reduced concern with lowest concern among Republicans, only 35% of whom considered there to be solid evidence of global warming. The cause of this marked difference in public opinion between the United States and the global public is uncertain but the hypothesis has been advanced that clearer communication by scientists both directly and through the media would be helpful in adequately informing the American public of the scientific consensus and the basis for it. The U.S. public appears to be unaware of the extent of scientific consensus regarding the issue, with 59% believing that scientists disagree “significantly” on global warming.

By 2010, with 111 countries surveyed, Gallup determined that there was a substantial decrease in the number of Americans and Europeans who viewed Global Warming as a serious threat. In the United States, a little over half the population (53%) now viewed it as a serious concern for either themselves or their families; a number 10 percentage points below the 2008 poll (63%). Latin America had the biggest rise in concern, with 73% saying global warming was a serious threat to their families. That global poll also found that people are more likely to attribute global warming to human activities than to natural causes, except in the USA where nearly half (47%) of the population attributed global warming to natural causes.

On the other hand, in May 2011 a joint poll by Yale and George Mason Universities found that nearly half the people in the USA (47%) attribute global warming to human activities, compared to 36% blaming it on natural causes. Only 5% of the 35% who were “disengaged”, “doubtful”, or “dismissive” of global warming were aware that 97% of publishing US climate scientists agree global warming is happening and is primarily caused by humans.

Researchers at the University of Michigan have found that the public’s belief as to the causes of global warming depends on the wording choice used in the polls.

In the United States, according to the Public Policy Institute of California’s (PPIC) eleventh annual survey on environmental policy issues, 75% said they believe global warming is a very serious or somewhat serious threat to the economy and quality of life in California.

Other views

Most scientists accept that humans are contributing to observed climate change. National science academies have called on world leaders for policies to cut global emissions. However, some scientists and non-scientists question aspects of climate-change science.

Organizations such as the libertarian Competitive Enterprise Institute, conservative commentators, and some companies such as ExxonMobilhave challenged IPCC climate change scenarios, funded scientists who disagree with the scientific consensus, and provided their own projections of the economic cost of stricter controls. In the finance industry, Deutsche Bank has set up an institutional climate change investment division (DBCCA), which has commissioned and published research on the issues and debate surrounding global warming. Environmental organizations and public figures have emphasized changes in the current climate and the risks they entail, while promoting adaptation to changes in infrastructural needs and emissions reductions. Some fossil fuel companies have scaled back their efforts in recent years, or called for policies to reduce global warming.

atmospheric co-2 levels.

_______________________________________________________________

Leave a comment »

forest conservation

FOREST CONSERVATION

Forests are one of the most important natural resources that have been gifted to mankind for their sustained existence on earth. Without question, they provide us with huge amounts of tangible and intangible benefits, without which indeed, all life, less to say human life, would fall under the risk of extinction. Hence, it is vital for us to realize this importance of forest cover, conserve them, and ultimately work towards a sustainable way to maintain our forests and meet our needs at the same time.
In this paper, I have focused initially on the barbaric behavior of us human beings towards forests, and how they have been and are still being massacred around the globe to meet our ever increasing and limitless wants and needs. I have also focused on why some of our conservation strategies and efforts are not working out the way they were supposed to be. In doing so, I have tried to prove that countries like Bangladesh, who are still striving to develop should focus on forest…. –continued–the page is under constuction.

error.404-upescs.wp.com/

Leave a comment »

history of environment conservation

environment conservation in india:

The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental and a social movement that seeks to protect natural resourcesincluding animal, fungus and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.

The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, water,soil conservation and sustainable forestry. The contemporary conservation movement has broadened from the early movement’s emphasis on use of sustainable yield of natural resources and preservation of wilderness areas to include preservation of biodiversity. Some say the conservation movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement, while others argue that they differ both in ideology and practice. Chiefly in the United States, conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their continued sustainable use by humans. In other parts of the world conservation is used more broadly to include the setting aside of natural areas and the active protection of wildlife for their inherent value, as much as for any value they may have for humans.

History of conservation ideas

The nascent conservation movement slowly developed in the 19th century, starting first in the scientific forestry methods pioneered by Prussia and France in the 17th and 18th centuries. While continental Europe created the scientific methods later used in conservationist efforts,British India and the United States are credited with starting the conservation movement.

Foresters in India, often German, managed forests using early climate change theories (in America, see also, George Perkins Marsh) that Alexander von Humboldt developed in the mid 19th century, applied fire protection, and tried to keep the “house-hold” of nature. This was an early ecological idea, in order to preserve the growth of delicate teak trees. The same German foresters who headed the Forest Service of India, such as Dietrich Brandis and Berthold Ribbentrop, traveled back to Europe and taught at forestry schools in England (Cooper’s Hill, later moved to Oxford). These men brought with them the legislative and scientific knowledge of conservationism in British India back to Europe, where they distributed it to men such asGifford Pinchot, which in turn helped bring European and British Indian methods to the United States.

f.v hayden map of yellow-stone national park,1871.

India

Sivaramakrishnan (2009) explores the boundaries between wildness and civility in Indian society, as well as connection of ideas of nature to different aspects of social life, especially labor, aesthetics, politics, commerce, and agriculture. These interconnected historical processes inform environmental history in India. At present forest history is the area of environmental history in which the most important scholarly debate is underway in India, with special interest in questions of water, air, industry, and climate change. At the grass root level are organizing mass movements with the theme of Think Globally-Act locally for conservation of nature since 1993 by Vijaypal baghel, peoples are called him ecoman, greenman etc. So many events are conducting as well as Jhola Aandolan against plastic carry bags use, Global green mission, Operation water reservoir, stop global warming & climate changes, reduce pollution with dedication to save environmental and spiritual values.

Roosevelt was a leader in Conservation, fighting to end the waste of natural resources

Theodore Roosevelt

Roosevelt put conservationist issue high on the national agenda. He worked with all the major figures of the movement, especially his chief advisor on the matter, Gifford Pinchot. Roosevelt was deeply committed to conserving natural resources, and is considered to be the nation’s first conservation President. He encouraged the Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902 to promote federal construction of dams to irrigate small farms and placed 230 million acres (360,000 mi² or 930,000 km²) under federal protection. Roosevelt set aside more Federal land for national parks and nature preserves than all of his predecessors combined.

Roosevelt established the United States Forest Service, signed into law the creation of five National Parks, and signed the year 1906 Antiquities Act, under which he proclaimed 18 new U.S. National Monuments. He also established the first 51 Bird Reserves, four Game Preserves, and 150 National Forests, including Shoshone National Forest, the nation’s first. The area of the United States that he placed under public protection totals approximately 230,000,000 acres (930,000 km2).

Gifford Pinchot had been appointed by McKinley as chief of Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture. In 1905, his department gained control of the national forest reserves. Pinchot promoted private use (for a fee) under federal supervision. In 1907, Roosevelt designated 16 million acres (65,000 km²) of new national forests just minutes before a deadline.

In May 1908, Roosevelt sponsored the Conference of Governors held in the White House, with a focus on natural resources and their most efficient use. Roosevelt delivered the opening address: “Conservation as a National Duty.”.

In 1903 Roosevelt toured the Yosemite Valley with John Muir, who had a very different view of conservation, and tried to minimize commercial use of water resources and forests. Working through the Sierra Club he founded, Muir succeeded in 1905 in having Congress transfer the Mariposa Grove and Yosemite Valley to the Federal Government. While Muir wanted nature preserved for the sake of pure beauty, Roosevelt subscribed to Pinchot’s formulation, “to make the forest produce the largest amount of whatever crop or service will be most useful, and keep on producing it for generation after generation of men and trees.

Crown-of-thorns starfish in Fijithe great barrier reef, under protection.

_______________________________________________________________

Leave a comment »

%d bloggers like this: